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# Introduction of Gravitation

## Introduction to Gravitation

The theory of gravitation was developed by Albert Einstein at 1907 and 1915. At the 20th century, Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation was accepted by all. According to Newton’s gravitational force is caused by matter. Gravitation is nothing but a force which is exerted by the surface of the earth. ## Examples of Gravitation

All of us would have observed such phenomenon an apple falling down the tree to the surface of the ground but there is a mystery behind what makes the apple fall to the ground. Similarly, you would have seen that when you throw a ball up, it comes back and falls in your hand. Similarly, in a rainy season, the rain drops that is the water droplets fall towards the ground. If you see all this phenomenon there is some force which is responsible for the objects falling towards the surface of the earth. So these are the examples we see around us in the terrestrial world even if you see in the universe if you see the planetary motion. There is some force which holds the planets in a particular orbit. We all know that all the planets move in a particular orbit. So, the specific orbit of the planets is also held by certain kind of forces. So gravitation is responsible for all these phenomena. Gravitation is nothing but a force which is exerted by the surface of the earth. Every object in the Earth from the smallest atom to the largest galaxy is form of matter. The quantity of matter is something build up and its mess things that have a lot of matter in them, have a high mass and a high gravitational force or pull more mass in an object. That mean has a serious attraction to other objects the gravitational force between two objects. It also depends on how much aside they are the closer two objects are together the stronger the gravitational force is between them. ## Origin of Gravitation

Newton’s view towards gravitation. So Newton was a scientist who actually studied about gravitation. In fact, he was the one who thought about what is gravitation and he defined the force of gravitation. So how did this idea get Newton, it happened when Newton was having a cup of tea in his garden, suddenly he saw an apple falling down from the tree to the ground. So Newton thought what made this apple fall to the ground.

He did lots of studies and several experiments and finally concluded that there was a force which is exerted by the surface of the earth because of the apple gets attracted towards the surface of the earth and falls towards it.

After doing lots of experiment, he concluded that it was not only the surface of the earth which exerts a force on an object in the entire universe. All the objects exert a force on another object that means all the objects in this universe engage every other object with a force. So this force was nothing but the force of gravitation. So this is how Newton did use to the idea of gravitation. ## Study Effect

The Study Effect and analysis related to gravitational field and forces in surroundings of different kind of masses and earth.

as An Example, how these things influence us, you and the earth both have mass, therefore, you drag on the earth and the earth drags on you. However, the earth’s mass is much bigger than yours. So as gravitational force is ample to keep you down on its surface when you jump it push away from the earth but because the Earth’s mass is so much bigger than its gravitational force,it pulls you back down.

## Gravitational Waves

Gravitational Waves (invented by sir Isaac Newton) is a wave in the fabric of space and time. Imagine that space is a huge sheet of rubber, thing that have a mass cause that rubber sheet to wrap, like a bowling ball on a trampoline. The more mass, the more that space gets bent and destroyed by gravity. As An Example, the reason behind the earth goes around the sun is that the sun is very huge, causing a big spin of the space around it.If you just try to move in a straight line around such a distortion, you will find yourself actually moving in a circle. That’s how orbit works, there’s not an actual force drawing the planes around, just a bending of space. Gravitational waves are produced whenever masses increase, changing the distortion of space. Everything in the world with mass and energy can make gravitational waves. If you and your friend started to dance around each other, you would also cause waves in the fabric of space and time. But these would be very small. Practically undetectable. It works like if you get a small tub and pull any object in it and take it out. It will make a ripple same for gravitational waves. The cousin is more mass than the earth the earth orbits our sun. So, if you take out the sun, it will make a ripple and that force will push the Earth’s out of its orbit. So, the main reason what causes gravity is mass.

## Fundamentals of Forces

There are four fundamental forces:

• The strong force
• The weak force
• The electromagnetic force
• The gravitational force

## The Gravitational Force

The Gravitational force which relates the earth, the moon or other massively large object. This is the weight of all objects. All objects upon earth exploit a force of gravity that is “downward” which is towards the center of the earth. The force of gravity on earth is always equivalent to the weight of the object.

Fgrow = m * g

Where g = 9.8 N/kg (One earth)

M = mass (in kg)

Gravity is made of Quantum Particles which is called Gravitations.

## Newton's Law of Gravitation

Newton’s Law of Gravitation is a universal law and it’s a fundamental law which gives an idea about the forces of interaction between two point masses. If there are two masses given to us m1 and at some separation, another mass m2 is kept and the distance is d, then according to the concept of gravitation these two masses will attract each other and the force is given by the Newton’s law of gravitation. According to this law, it states that masses. The fact is, “force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of separation between the two masses”. If we combine these equations, we will get, Force is equal to proportional G and m1, m2 by r square - that is the expression of Newton’s law of gravitation. “The universal gravitational constant times the mass of each object all divided by the square of the distance between the two objects”. • G = Universal Gravitational Constant (Value is: G = 6.67 ×10-11)
• M1, M= Mass of the two objects
• d = The straight line distance between the centers of the objects.

## Gravity Dam

A gravity dam is a huge sized dam made by concrete or stone masonry. They are designed to hold back large volumes of water. By using these materials, the weight of the dam alone is able to oppose the horizontal pressure of the water pushing against it. Gravity dams are designed so that every dam is steady, independent of any other dam section. The most common classification of gravity dam is by the materials composing the structure, like concrete dams include mass concrete dams, made of:

Conventional concrete: Dworshak Dam, Grand Coulee Dam

Roller-compacted concrete: Upper Stillwater Dam

Masonry: Pathfinder Dam, Cheesman Dam, Hollow Gravity Dam

Composite Dams are a combination of concrete and embankment dams. Construction materials of composite dams the same used for concrete and bank dams.

Gravity dams can be classified by the plan: Most gravity dams are straight. Some masonry and concrete gravity dams have the dam axis curved to add stability through arch action.

## Types of Gravity Dam

Gravity Dams are three types according to their structural height:

• Low, up to 100 feet.
• Medium high, between 100 to 300 feet.
• High, over 300 feet.

## Quantum Gravity

The two pillar of 20th-century physics is Quantum theory and Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Quantum theory describes the basic, microscopic components of nature and their interactions such as electrons and photons. While general relativity describes the force of gravity as the curvature of spacetime itself and governs large-scale dynamics from planetary orbits all the way up to the evolution of the universe. The main problem of quantum gravity arises because while these two theories are tremendously successful in their own domains. They cannot be complete since they are mutually incompatible. On the one hand, general relativity describes gravity as a simple deterministic theory which cannot be managed quantum mechanically in the same as the other forces. If one tries to implement the conventional rules of quantum mechanics to gravity. It spits back uncontrollable ability infinities or in other words complete nonsense. Quantum theories are predicted that these topics cannot resolve without a successful unified theory which include both quantum mechanics and gravity. While there are many proposals such as string theory loop quantum gravity and causal theory.