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Classification of Crystalline Solids

Classification of Crystalline Solids

Table:  Some characteristics of different types of crystalline solids

 Types of Solid Constituents Bonding Examples Physical Nature M.P. B.P. Electrical Conductivity
Ionic Positive and negative ions network systematically arranged

Coulombic

 

NaCl, KCl, CaO, MgO, LiF, ZnS, BaSO4 and K2SO4 etc. Hard but brittle High (≃1000K) High (≃2000K)

Conductor

(in molten state and in aqueous solution)

Covalent Atoms connected in covalent bonds

Electron sharing

 

SiO2 (Quartz),

SiC, C (diamond),

C(graphite) etc.

Hard

Hard

Hard

Very high (≃4000K)

Very high

(≃5000K)

Insulator except graphite
Molecular Polar or non-polar  molecules

(i) Molecular interactions (intermolecu-lar forces)

(ii) Hydrogen bonding

 

I2,S8, P4, CO2, CH4, CCl4 etc.

 

Starch, sucrose, water, dry ice or drycold (solid CO2) etc.

Soft

 

 

Soft

Low

(≃300K to 600K)

 

Low

(≃400K)

Low

(≃ 450 to 800 K)

 

 

Low

(≃373K to 500K)

Insulator

 

 

Insulator

Metallic

Cations in a sea of electrons

 

Metallic

 

Sodium , Au,  Cu, magnesium, metals and alloys Ductile malleable

High

(≃800K to 1000 K)

High

(≃1500K to 2000K)

Conductor
Atomic Atoms London dispersion force Noble gases Soft Very low Very low Poor thermal and electrical conductors

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