Nature and Characteristics of Radioactive Emissions

Nature and Characteristics of Radioactive Emissions

The phenomenon of radioactivity arises because of the decay of unstable nuclei or certain element. The nature of the radiations emitted from a radioactive substance was investigated by Rutherford (1904)by applying electric and magnetic fields. When these radiation were subjected to electric or magnetic field, these were split into three types a, b and g –rays.

Characteristics of radioactive rays

a-Rayb-Rayg-Ray
Charge and mass: It carries +2 charge and 4 unit mass.It carries -1 charge and no mass.It has no charge and negligible mass.
Identity: Helium nuclei or helium ion or He2+.Electron High energy raditons.
Action of magnetic field:Deflected towards the cathode.Deflected to anode.Not deflected.
Velocity: 1/10th to that of light.Same as that of light.Same as that of light.
Ionizing power: Very high nearly 100 times to that of b-rays.Low nearly 100 times to that of g-rays.Very low.
Effect on ZnS plate: They cause luminescence.Very little effect.Very little effect.
Penetrating power: Low100 times that of a-particles.10 times that of b-particles.
Range: Very small.More than a-particles.More
Nature of product: Product obtained by the loss of 1 a-particle has atomic number less by 2 units and mass number less by 4 units.Product obtained by the loss of 1 b-particle has atomic number more by 1 unit, without any change in mass number.There is no change in the atomic number as well as in mass number

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