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Solubility product

In a saturated solution of sparingly soluble electrolyte two equilibria exist and can be represented as,

Applying the law of mass action,

Since the solution is saturated, the concentration of unionised molecules of the electrolyte is constant at a particular temperature, i.e., constant.

Hence, (constant)

is termed as the solubility product. It is defined as the product of the concentration of ions in a saturated solution of an electrolyte at a given temperature.

Consider, in general, the electrolyte of the type which dissociates as,

Applying law of mass action,

When the solution is saturated, (constant) or

(constant)

Thus, solubility product is defined as the product of concentrations of the ions raised to a power equal to the number of times the ions occur in the equation representing the dissociation of the electrolyte at a given temperature when the solution is saturated.

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