Elevation in b.pt. of The Solvent (Ebullioscopy)
Boiling point of a liquid may be defined as the temperature at which its vapour pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pressure, i.e., 760 mm. Since the addition of a non-volatile solute lowers the vapour pressure of the solvent, solution always has lower vapour pressure than the solvent and hence it must be heated to a higher temperature to make its vapour pressure equal to atmospheric pressure with the result the solution boils at a higher temperature than the pure solvent. Thus sea water boils at a higher temperature than distilled water. If Tb is the boiling point of the solvent and T is the boiling point of the solution, the difference in the boiling point (DT or D Tb) is called the elevation of boiling point.
Elevation in boiling point is determined by Landsberger’s method and Cottrell’s method. Study of elevation in boiling point of a liquid in which a non-volatile solute is dissolved is called as ebullioscopy.