Equilibrium & Its Dynamic Nature
“Equilibrium is the state at which the concentration of reactants and products do not change with time. i.e. concentrations of reactants and products become constant.”
The important characteristics of equilibrium state are,
(1) Equilibrium state can be recognised by the constancy of certain measurable properties such as pressure, density, colour, concentration etc. by changing these conditions of the system, we can control the extent to which a reaction proceeds.
(2) Equilibrium state can only be achieved in close vessel.
(3) Equilibrium state is reversible in nature.
(4) Equilibrium state is also dynamic in nature.
(5) At equilibrium state,
Rate of forward reaction = Rate of backward reaction
(6) At equilibrium state, ΔG = 0, so that ΔH = TDS.