Types of Atomic Spectrum
(1) Emission spectrum:
Spectrum produced by the emitted radiation is known as emission spectrum. This spectrum corresponds to the radiation emitted (energy evolved) when an excited electron returns back to the ground state.
(i) Continuous spectrum:
When sunlight is passed through a prism, it gets dispersed into continuous bands of different colours. If the light of an incandescent object resolved through prism or spectroscope, it also gives continuous spectrum of colors.
(ii) Line spectrum:
If the radiation’s obtained by the excitation of a substance are analyzed with help of a spectroscope a series of thin bright lines of specific colors are obtained. There is dark space in between two consecutive lines. This type of spectrum is called line spectrum or atomic spectrum..
(2) Absorption spectrum:
Spectrum produced by the absorbed radiations is called absorption spectrum.
(3) Hydrogen spectrum:
Hydrogen spectrum is an example of line emission spectrum or atomic emission spectrum.
(a) When an electric discharge is passed through hydrogen gas at low pressure, a bluish light is emitted.
(b) This light shows discontinuous line spectrum of several isolated sharp lines through prism.
(c) All these lines of H-spectrum have Lyman, Balmer, Paschen, Barckett, Pfund and Humphrey series. These spectral series were named by the name of scientist discovered them.
(d) To evaluate wavelength of various H-lines Ritz introduced the following expression,
V- = 1/λ = V/C = [1/n12 - 1n22 ]
Where R is universal constant known as Rydberg’s constant its value is 109, 678 cm-1.