John Dalton 1808, believed that matter is made up of extremely minute indivisible particles, called atom which can takes part in chemical reactions. These can neither be created nor be destroyed. However, modern researches have conclusively proved that atom is no longer an indivisible particle. Modern structure of atom is based on Rutherford’s scattering experiment on atoms and on the concepts of quantization of energy.
Composition of Atom
The works of J.J. Thomson and Ernst Rutherford actually laid the foundation of the modern picture of the atom. It is now believed that the atom consists of several sub-atomic particles like electron, proton, neutron, positron, neutrino, meson etc. Out of these particles, the electron, proton and the neutron are called fundamental subatomic particles and others are non-fundamental particles.