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Reproductive Health

Reproductive Health

Table of Content

Define Reproductive Health

A good Reproductive Health is defined as the state of well-being in all matters related to reproductive system. The individuals with good Reproductive Health can have safe sex life as well as can reproduce efficiently. Reproductive Health services ensures a healthy reproductive year.

Components of Reproductive Health

The key components of Reproductive Health are- family planning, sexual health, and maternal health.

Family Planning

It is a practice of controlling the number of children in a family. India is the first country to begin the family planning programs in 1952.  It also includes a gap between the births. The purpose of family planning is to raise the children with good health, education as well as other resources. It is also to make sure that couple should plan for child only when they have all the resources that are needed to live a healthy life.Fig. 1 Inverted red triangle for family planning and

There are different methods for family planning such as contraception or birth control, assisted reproductive technology and family planning programs. Contraception includes vasectomy, tubectomy, condoms, etc. Assisted reproductive technology is a method used when women is unable to conceive due to some infertility problems.

An inverted red triangle is a symbol for family planning and contraception.

Reproductive Health law of 2012 ensures a universal access to methods on contraception, sexual education, fertility control and maternal care.

Sexual Health

Sexual health is the ability to enjoy sexuality throughout the life of an individual. A good sexual health means an individual is socially, mentally, and physically in a state of well-being.

Maternal Health/Female Reproductive Health

Maternal health includes the health of a women at the time of pregnancy, child birth as well as postpartum period. The four elements that can prevent maternal death are – prenatal care, second one is, expert birth attendance with emergency backup which includes doctors, nurses as well as midwives who are skilled in managing normal deliveries and can also identify complications during the delivery. Third, emergency child birth care to report the major causes of maternal death which such as hemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disorders and obstructed labor. Lastly, postnatal care, that is, care after the birth of the child.

Adolescent Reproductive Health

Reproductive Health and sexual needs of adolescents are unique. There are certain clinical and social issues relating to adolescent Reproductive Health such as sexually transmitted infections, teen sex, sexual education, birth control, teen pregnancy etc. So, adolescent Reproductive Health should be monitored. They should have access to sexuality education, measures to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, counselling for family planning etc. The analysis framework for adolescent Reproductive Health is given below:

Analysis framework for adolescent Reproductive Health

Fig.2. Analysis Framework for adolescent Reproductive Health

Population Explosion and Birth Control

A sudden increase in the size of the population is known as population explosion. There are many reasons for population explosion such as:

  • Decline in maternal mortality rate.
  • Decline in death rate.
  • Increase in life expectancy
  • Decline in infant mortality rate.
  • Increased rate of immigration.

Methods for controlling population explosion

  • Periodic abstinence
  • Withdrawal or coitus interruptus
  • Lactational amenorrhea
  • Condoms
  • Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults
  • Intra-uterine devices (IUDs)
  • Contraceptive pills
  • Surgical methods such as vasectomy and tubectomy

Birth Control Methods

Fig.3. Birth Control Methods

Note: For detailed explanation, kindly refer to the content “Population Explosion and Birth Control”.

 

Infertility

If a couple is unable to produce children even after unprotected coitus, they are said to be infertile.

Reasons of Infertility

Fig.4. Reasons of Infertility

 There are certain methods available for couples to have children despite being infertile. They are as follows:

  • In vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • Zygote intra-fallopian transfer (ZIFT)
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • Gamete intra-fallopian tube (GIFT)
  • Artificial insemination

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Diseases which are transmitted during sexual contact are known as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). List of some of the sexually transmitted diseases are as follows:

STDs

Causative agent

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Pelvic inflammatory disease

N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis

Bacterial vaginosis

Gardnerella vaginalis

Chlamydia trachomatis infections

Chlamydia trachomatis

Genital Herpes

Herpes Simplex Virus type 2

Gonorrhea

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Lymphogranuloma venereum

C. trachomatis

Nongonococcal urethritis

C. trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Trichomonas vaginalis

Syphilis

Treponema pallidum

Importance of Reproductive Health

  • It affects the health of men and women as well as the health of the next generation.
  • Mother’s health is directly related to child health.
  • It is important for social, mental, and physical well-being of an individual.
  • It also affects the economic development. Population explosion will lead to less resources.

Note: For detailed study, kindly refer to the content Infertility and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

 

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