Main Rules of ICBN
1. According to binomial system name of any species consists of two names
(i) Generic name - Name of genus
(ii) Specific name - Trival name
Eg. Solanum tuberosum (Potato)
Generic name Specific name
Mangifera indica (Mango)
Generic name Specific name
2. In plant nomenclature (ICBN), tautonyms are not valid i.e. generic name and specific name should not be same in plants. ego Mangifera mangifera But tautonyms are valid for animal nomenclature (ICZN-International Code of Zoological Nomenclature) e & Naja naja (Indian cobra), Raitus rattus (Rat)
3. Length of generic mime or specific name should not be less than 3 letters and not more than 12 letters. ego Mangifera indica
Exception: Riccia paihankotensis – More than 12 letters According to ICBN this name is not valid but this name was proposed before 1961, so it is valid.
4. First letter of generic name should be in capital letter and first letter of specific name should be in small letter. ego Mangifera indica But if specific name is based on the name of some person, its first letter should be in capital letter ego lsoetes Pantii.
5. When written with free hand or typed, then generic name and specific name should be separately underlined. But during printing, name should be italized.
6. Name of scientist (who proposed nomenclature) should be written in short after the specific name ego Mangifera indica Lin.
7. Name of scientist should be neither underlined nor written in italics, but written in roman, letters (simple alphabets)
8. If any scientist has proposed wrong name then his name should be written in bracket and the scientist who corrected the name should be written after the bracket. ego Tsuga canadensis (Lin.) Salisbury
Note: Linnaeus named this plant as Pinus canadensis
9. Scientific names should be derived from Latin or Greek languages because they are dead languages.
10. Type specimen (Herbarium Sheet) of newly discovered plant should be placed in herbarium (Dry garden).
11. Standard size of herbarium sheet is 11.5 × 16.5 inches
Type specimen (herbarium sheet) are of different type:
Holotype: Herbarium sheet on which the first description of plant is based.
Lectotype: In case of holotype is lost, second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called lectotype.
Neotype: In case holotype and original plant is lost then herbarium sheet prepared from some other plant of same species is called neotype.
Syntype: In case holotype and original, plant is lost then many herbarium sheet prepared from many plants of same species is called syntype.
Isotype: Duplicate of holotype - In presence of holotype a second herbarium sheet prepared from the original plant is called isotype.
Paratype: Additional herbarium sheet used in the first description of plant is called para type. It is prepared from some other plant of same species having some variations.
Note: Nomenclature is invalid in absence of herbarium sheet.
ICNB = International Code of Nomenclature 'for Bacteria
ICVN = International Code of Viral Nomenclature
ICNCP = International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants