* Funaria is known as common moss or green moss or cord moss.

* The main plant body of Funaria is gametophyte and is of two forms.

(1) Juvenile form (creeping protonema).

(2) Adult form (leafy gametophore).

* Protonema is the branched filamentous portion which is produced by germination of spores. It is ephemeral or short lived.

* Leafy gametophore develop from buds produced on protonema and is made up of axis with spirally arranged leaves. It is 1-3 cm in height green and is monopodially branched. The main branch of leafy gametophore bears male reproductive organs, e.g., antheridia and the side branch is female branch.

Fig Funarla plant showing male and female branches

Funaria reproduces both by vegetative and sexual methods.

(1) Vegetative reproduction: Vegetative reproduction takes place by fragmentation, primary protonema, secondary protonema, bulbils, gemma and apospory.

(2) Sexual reproduction: The Funaria plants are monoecious and autoecious, i.e., male (antheridia, club shaped) and female (archegonia, flask shaped) reproductive organs are produced on, the same plant but on different branches. Male organs mature first and hence Funaria plants are Protandrous,

* There are two generations in life cycle of Funaria, i.e., gametophytic generation (n) which is independent and complex and sporophytic generation (2n) which is partially dependent upon gametophytic generation. These two generations follow each other in regular sequence. This is called heteromorphic or heterologous alternation of generations.


* The main plant body of Riccia is gametophytic (n). It is small, green, flat and fleshy. The thallus is dorsiventral and dichotomously branched. The thalli are present in the form of patches called rosettes. Scales are found on the margins, while rhizoids are present in the mid-rib region of thallus. Rhizoids are unicellular and unbranched and are of two types - smooth and tuberculate. Rhizoids help in fixation. In submerged species, (e.g., R. fluitans) scales and rhizoids are not present.

* Riccia reproduces by .both vegetative and sexual method.

(1) Vegetative reproduction: Riccia reproduces vegetatively by progressive death and decay, persistent apices (R. discolor), adventitious branches (R. fluitans), tubers (R. billardieri, R. discolor, R. perennis) and by rhizoid (R. glauca).

(2) Sexual reproduction: Sexual reproduction is oogamous type in Riccia. Antheridia and archegonia 'are the male and female sex organs respectively.

* Most of the species are monoecious or homothallic, i.e., male and female sex organs are present on the same thallus. A few species are dioecious or heterothallic, i.e., antheridia and archegonia are present on different thalli. Common dioecious species of Riccia are R.himalayensis and R. frostii.

* There are 2 generations in life cycle of Riccia. The main plant body is garnetophytic (n). The gametophytic phase starts with formation of spores and ends with fertilization. The second phase is sporophytic phase (2n), which starts with' zygote and ends with reduction division of spore mother cell. The sporophytic phase is dependent upon gametophyte. Thus there is heteromorphic or heterologous alternation of generations in Riccia. So life 'Cycle in Riccia is diplohaplontic.

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