Biology in Human Welefare

Biology in Human Welefare

Table of Content

Microbes in Human Welfare

Microbes in household products: Different microbes through the process of fermentation help us in making different nourishment things, for example, curd, idli, bread, dosa, drinks, and dhokla. Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the baker's yeast is utilized as a fermenting agent as a part of making bread, dosa, and idlis. Yeast likewise helps in beer and wine readiness by the fermentation of sugars that are present in organic product juices or barley to deliver liquor and carbon dioxide. A similar rule is utilized as a part of the generation of flavor, made by the fermentation of the sap of the palm tree. Essentially, oxygen consuming bacteria called Acetobacter changes over ethyl alcohol to create vinegar or acetic acid.

Lactobacillus, otherwise called lactic acid bacteria or LAB, when added as an inoculum to milk, duplicates in millions in the milk and changes over milk sugar lactose into lactic acid. The lactic acid thus turns the milk thicker and processes the milk proteins partly, bringing about the development of curd. LAB even builds the amounts of Vitamin B12 in the curd.

The harmful bacterium that enters with food in the human stomach is killed by LAB. A few bacteria are utilized as a part of flavoring and preserving tea, tobacco, and cheddar, a procedure called curing. Diverse assortments of cheddar are recognized by their trademark texture, taste and flavor, all of which rely on upon the decision of the organism utilized. Bacteria, for example, Propionibacterium shermanii create extensive gaps in Swiss cheddar and fungi, for example, Penicillium roqueforti gives the trademark flavor in Roquefort cheddar.

Role of Microorganisms

Fig: Role of Microorganisms

Microbes in Industrial Products: Microbes, for example, bacteria and fungi help in the creation of alcoholic refreshments, anti-infection agents, enzymes, acids, and different chemicals on a mechanical level. Actually, the fundamental rule in making drinks or beverages on a huge scale is fermentation. In ventures, microbes are developed in fermenters to make drinks like wine, brew, whiskey, cognac and rum on a vast scale. Saccharomyces cerevisiae generally is known as brewer's yeast, ages diverse malted oats and organic product juices to create ethanol. Distinctive alcoholic beverages are readied, contingent upon the substrate utilized for fermentation and the kind of handling. Low alcoholic beverages are set up by the fermentation of starch items, while high alcoholic substance drinks are delivered by the refining of fermented malted grain, molasses and grape juice.

Beer is made from malted barley

Fig: Beer is made from malted barley

Anti-infection agents are the chemicals created by the microbes, used to kill disease-bringing about microbes. Penicillin was the main anti-toxin found by Alexander Fleming. Be that as it may, the corrective impact of penicillin against different irresistible diseases was advanced by Ernest Chain and Howard Florey. Numerous anti-infection agents like actinomycin, neomycin, and streptothricin, were delivered by various types of Streptomyces. From that point forward, more antimicrobials are utilized as a part of curing different diseases, for example, diphtheria, whooping cough, plague and leprosy.

Microbes are additionally utilized as a part of delivering natural acids. Acetobacter, Clostridium butylicum, and Lactobacillus creates acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid individually. Lipases created from Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa, are utilized as a part of cleansers to evacuate oil stains, while pectinases and proteases delivered by Aspergillus niger are utilized as a part of packaged natural product juices for elucidation.

The items created from microbes have therapeutic applications as well, streptokinase evacuates clots, statins go about as a blood-cholesterol bringing down operator, cyclosporine goes about as an immuno-suppressant to patients admitted for organ transplant.

Microbes in Sewage Treatment: Huge amounts of waste water, called sewage are discharged from houses and industrial sector. Under the Ganga Action Plan and Yamuna Action Plan, sewage ought to be dealt with in sewage treatment plants before letting into waterways and streams to keep away from contamination. In India, microbes are utilized to treat gallons of waste water in the sewage plants. Microbial treatment of sewage ordinarily happens in two phases: primary and secondary treatment.

Microbes in Production of Biogas: Microbes normally create gasses amid their development and digestion. In view of the natural substrates they use, distinctive microbes create diverse gasses. Methanogens create bountiful measures of methane alongside carbon dioxide and hydrogen gasses from natural matter, for example, cellulose.

Methanobacterium display inside the rumen of dairy cattle process the cellulose show in grass, and its fertilizer is rich in similar bacteria. The waste or gobar is utilized to create biogas in a biogas plant.

Biogas Process

Fig: Biogas Process

A biogas plant is a successful approach to create vitality from wastes through the activity of microbes. Biogas produced from biogas plants can be utilized as minimal- investment fuel that blazes without discharging smoke, for lighting streetlights and running electric motors. The innovation of biogas generation was created in India by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) and the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).

Microbes as Biocontrol Agents: The utilization of natural strategies to control plant diseases and vermin is called biological pest control, while the valuable life forms supported to manage pests are known as bio-control agents.

Microbes as Biofertilizers: Justus von Liebig proposed the utilization of substance composts helpful for plant development, so that inexhaustible sustenance could be delivered. In any case, around 10% of ground water tests demonstrated the nearness of poisonous chemicals, clearly from composts, more than as far as possible recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). This cleared the requirement for natural cultivating, wherein bio-manures are utilized rather than engineered synthetic composts. Sir Howard presented the idea of natural cultivating; consequently, he is viewed as the father of natural cultivating.

Bio-composts are substances containing living beings, for example, bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi that advance plant development by expanding soil ripeness. In addition, they once in a while shape harmonious relationship with plants and help in inorganic supplement take-up by the plants.

Further Reading: Microbes in Human Welfare

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Management of Dairy and Poultry Farms: With an expansion in populace around the world, an expansion in nourishment creation is additionally required. This can be accomplished through plant breeding and animal husbandry. Animal husbandry alludes to the act of breeding and raising domesticated animals that are helpful to individuals and incorporates poultry cultivating, dairy cultivating, fisheries and honey bee keeping. To expand the general quality and efficiency of animal delivery, systems and procedures to improve sustenance creation should be started alongside appropriate administration of homesteads and ranch animals.

Dairy Farm Management

Fig: Dairy Farm Management

Administration rehearses followed in dairy and poultry ranches where customary techniques have been consolidated with imaginative advances to help nourishment creation. Dairy ranches raise animals for milk and milk items. The administration techniques used to build generation without trading off on the nature of milk is called dairy farm administration. One of the key variables for expanded milk generation is breed choice. Great breeds have high-yielding potential and high imperviousness to disease. Aside from the breed, appropriate protecting, nourishing and cleaning of steers are basic to acquire exceptional returns of milk.

Animal Breeding: Animal breeding is the controlled proliferation of animals to accomplish attractive characteristics of homestead animals and increment the yield of these animals. The expression "breed" alludes to a gathering of animals inside an animal category, related by progenitors and having numerous comparative characters, for example, appearance, conduct and size.

Animal breeding is separated into two principle classifications; inbreeding and out-breeding. Inbreeding is breeding between animals having a place with a similar breed with a typical progenitor while out-breeding will be breeding between animals having a place with various breeds or between a similar breed however with various predecessors or between various species.

Bee-Keeping and Fisheries: Animal husbandry incorporates honey bee keeping and fisheries notwithstanding dairy cattle and poultry cultivating. Honey bee keeping, otherwise called apiculture, is the raising of honeybees in manufactured bee sanctuaries called apiaries for the business generation of nectar. Honey is exceptionally nutritious and a critical constituent of a few pharmaceuticals. Likewise, the apiaries in which bumble bees live and sustain their young ones are a wellspring of beeswax. Beeswax is utilized as a part of beauty care products and clean.

Fisheries are another piece of animal husbandry and identify with the raising, finding and offering of sea-going animals, for example, fish and shellfish. As fish contain more proteins and less fat, they are wanted to different meats. Most generally eaten freshwater angle incorporate Catla, Rohu, and the regular carp while marine fish incorporate Hilsa, Mackerel and Pomfret. Fisheries likewise give items; for example, cod liver oil, which is a healthful supplement and pearl clams that have business esteem. Thus, it shapes the vocation of many individuals in beach front territories of India.

Fish Farming

Fig: Fish Farming

As fish like fish, prawn, crab and lobster are dependably sought after a few systems like aquaculture and pisciculture are utilized to build their yield. Aquaculture is the development of sea-going animals and plants for sustenance while pisciculture alludes particularly to fish cultivating. This sensational increment in fish generation was known as the Blue Revolution contrasted with the Green Revolution that realized an expansion in rural creation.

Plant Breeding: India is a rural nation with 62 percent of individuals occupied with horticulture for their occupation. With the progression of time and an expansion in populace, the interest for sustenance has risen broadly. Prior, this was handled through customary cultivating and better administration practices.

Be that as it may, it brought about a little increment in yield. It was just amid the 1960s that the Green Revolution achieved an exceptional increment in the generation of high-yielding, disease-safe products like wheat and rice by utilizing plant breeding strategies. Plant breeding includes crossing between plants with sought characters to deliver posterity that have the unrivaled characters of both their folks.

Uses of Plant Breeding: Plant breeding assumes a key part in taking care of the nourishment demand of the expanding total populace. While more than 840 million individuals around the globe need day by day meals it was accounted for that more than 3 billion individuals are battling 'concealed hunger'. 'Concealed hunger' alludes to a less than stellar eating routine or unhealthiness, that is, an insufficiency of basic micronutrients, proteins and vitamins. To beat this issue and advance general health, activities like biofortification were presented.

Biofortification is particular breeding of harvests with higher nutritious esteem, for example, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Accordingly, biofortification brings about high-yielding products braced with particular supplements.

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, utilized biofortification to build up a few invigorated leafy foods. Illustrations incorporate Vitamin A-sustained carrot, spinach and pumpkin Vitamin C-braced tomatoes, mustard and sharp gourd protein-strengthened beans and garden peas and iron-and calcium-invigorated spinach. Regardless of biofortification and a few plant-breeding strategies to help nourishment generation, the interest for sustenance was perpetually expanding. The move to a meat eat less further expanded the interest for grains as food grains are likewise utilized as animal nourish.

Tissue Culture: Tissue culture is a strategy utilized for plant proliferation as a part of expansion to other conventional plant-breeding methods. Researchers found that any part of a plant developed in supplement media under sterile conditions can offer ascent to a radical new plant. This property of plant cells to offer ascent to a radical new plant is called totipotency. It requires a supplement medium that contains sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, proteins and development controllers, for example, auxins and cytokinins.

Tissue Culture

Fig: Tissue Culture

Further Reading: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Human Health and Diseases

Common Diseases: Health came to be viewed as a condition of overall physical, mental and social prosperity. Be that as it may, when our body is tainted with a disease we are no more drawn out healthy. Diseases can be of two sorts: infectious and non-infectious. As the name recommends, infectious diseases are those that can be transmitted starting with one individual then onto the next.

Diseases can be brought about by an assortment of life forms, for example, bacteria or fungi. All disease-bringing on living beings are called pathogens. Pathogens enter our body through different means, adjust to the earth inside the body and duplicate inside. They then meddle with typical substantial capacities, bringing about either morphological or practical harm. The bacteria SalmonellaTyphi causes typhoid fever in people. Typhoid fever can be affirmed by a Widal Test. In outrageous cases, typhoid can bring about intestinal aperture and death. Pneumonia, diarrhea, diphtheria, and plague are different diseases brought on by bacteria.

Human Disease and Health

Fig: Human Disease and Health

Viruses are not behind with regards to creating irresistible diseases. Rhinoviruses are in charge of bringing about the basic frosty. Nasal clog and release, a sore throat, cerebral pain, and roughness are manifestations of the normal chilly, which goes on for around three to seven days.

Helminths like Ascaris and Wuchereria are likewise in charge of bringing on pathogenic diseases in people. Ascaris, the basic roundworm, is an intestinal parasite that causes Ascariasis. It is portrayed by inward dying, strong agony, fever, sickliness and blockage of the intestinal section. Wucheria bancrofti is a filarial worm that causes a disease called filariasis. It is portrayed by interminable aggravation of the organs. The worm possesses the lymphatic framework, where they keep on living for a considerable length of time. The genital organs are frequently influenced, bringing about gross disfigurements. Filariasis can be transmitted to healthy individuals by female mosquito vectors.

Different pathogens, for example, fungi like Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton cause ringworms that show up as dry, flaky injuries on different parts of the body, for example, the skin, nails, and scalp. These sores additionally cause extreme tingling. Ringworms can be transmitted to healthy people by sharing towels, brushes, and garments of a tainted individual. In this manner, pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses and helminthes are in charge of bringing on some basic yet, to a great degree infectious diseases.

Immune System of the body: The human immune framework functions as a protective layer against infections and diseases. It helps the body recognize non-self cells like bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens from self-cells. The immune framework reacts to non-self specialists and recollects them. It likewise assumes a critical part in responding to allergens organ transplantation and additionally auto-immune reactions. The human immune framework comprises of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes. The lymphoid organs are the place lymphocytes begin, develop and multiply. Lymphoid organs can be named essential lymphoid organs and optional lymphoid organs.

Bone marrow and the thymus are two essential lymphoid organs. Bone marrow is an adaptable tissue found in the empty inside of bones where all platelets including lymphocytes are delivered. The thymus, then again, is a lobed organ, which is situated close heart and underneath the breastbone. The thymus, which is very substantial during childbirth, shrivels with an expansion in age. The thymus contracts significantly with an increase in age of an individual. Both bone marrow and the thymus give the earth to the advancement and development of T-lymphocytes. At the point when lymphocytes develop, they move to the auxiliary lymphoid organs.

It is inside the auxiliary lymphoid organs that lymphocytes associate with antigens and multiply to frame effector cells. The spleen is an expansive bean-formed organ situated in the upper-left part of the guts, ensured by the rib confine. It essentially contains lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and phagocytes. It goes about as an expansive repository of blood to be provided in time of crises like hemorrhagic stun. It likewise assumes the part of RBC cemetery by expelling old or harmed RBCs from the body. Aside from the lymphoid organs, the human body has groups of lymph hubs in spots, for example, the neck, underneath the arms and in the crotch.

Lymph hubs trap microbes and antigens that enter lymph and tissue liquid, which actuate the lymphocytes to deliver antibodies, bringing about an immune reaction. Another lymphoid tissue called MALT is situated inside the epithelial coating of significant tracts like the respiratory, stomach related and urogenital tracts. The T-cells, B-cells, and macrophages introduce in MALT control mucosal insusceptibility. Accordingly, the immune framework, which all in all involves the lymphoid organs, lymph nodes and tissues, shields the human body from intrusion by pathogens and microbes.

Immune System

Fig: Immune System

Further Reading: Human Health and Diseases

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