AIPMT SYLLABUS, BIOLOGY
AIPMT Biology Syllabus
BIOLOGY (BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY)
Unit 1: Diversity in Living World
Biology: Its meaning and relevance to mankind
What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums, zoological parks); Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.
Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system); Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient features (Monera, including Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia); Viruses; Lichens
Plant kingdom: Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);
Animal kingdom: Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.
Unit 2: Cell: The Unit of Life ; Structure and Function
Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/ Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.
Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.
Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.
Biomolecules: Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.
Enzymes: Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.
Unit 3: Genetics and Evolution
Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;
Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.
DNA: Its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.
Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.
Unit 4: Structure and Function – Plants
Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants;
Anatomy and function of root, stem(including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;
Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.
Mineral nutrition: Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.
Photosynthesis: Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors .
Respiration: Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.
Unit: 5 Structure and Function–Animals
Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of earthworm, cockroach and frog.
Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases. Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.
Excretion system: Urine formation, regulation of kidney function
Locomotion and movement: Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.
Control and co-ordination:
Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.
Unit : 6 Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants
Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction:
Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and apomixis).
Growth and Movement:
Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement; Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism; Vernalisation; Various types of movements.
Unit 7: Reproduction and Development in Humans
Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and contraception.
Unit 8: Ecology and Environment
Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.
Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax.
Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web; Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.
Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.
Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries)
Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots).
Unit 9 : Biology and Human Welfare
Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and helminths, and their control.
* Cancer; AIDS.
* Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;
* Basic concepts of immunology.
* Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.
* Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);
* Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;
* Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with special reference to rust and smut of wheat, bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato, bean mosaic, and root – knot of vegetables.
Hydrocarbon Rich plants as substitute of fossil fuels.
Unit 10: Biotechnology and its Applications
Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;
Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.
Steps in recombinant DNA technology: Restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants.
Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In Industry – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In Agriculture – GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.