Biology

AIPMT SYLLABUS, BIOLOGY

AIPMT Biology Syllabus

BIOLOGY (BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY)

Unit 1: Diversity in Living World

Biology: Its meaning and relevance to mankind

What is living; Taxonomic categories and aids (Botanical gardens, herbaria, museums, zoological parks); Systematics and Binomial system of nomenclature.

Introductory classification of living organisms (Two-kingdom system, Five-kingdom system); Major groups of each kingdom alongwith their salient features (Monera, including Archaebacteria and Cyanobacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia); Viruses; Lichens

Plant kingdom: Salient features of major groups (Algae to Angiosperms);

Animal kingdom: Salient features of Nonchordates up to phylum, and Chordates up to class level.


Unit 2: Cell: The Unit of Life ; Structure and Function

Cell wall; Cell membrane; Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi apparatus/ Dictyosome, Lysosomes, Vacuoles); Mitochondria; Plastids; Ribosomes; Cytoskeleton; Cilia and Flagella; Centrosome and Centriole; Nucleus; Microbodies.

Structural differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and between plant and animal cells.

Cell cycle (various phases); Mitosis; Meiosis.

Biomolecules: Structure and function of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids.

Enzymes: Chemical nature, types, properties and mechanism of action.


Unit 3: Genetics and Evolution

Mendelian inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Gene interaction; Incomplete dominance; Co-dominance; Complementary genes; Multiple alleles;

Linkage and Crossing over; Inheritance patterns of hemophilia and blood groups in humans.

DNA: Its organization and replication; Transcription and Translation; Gene expression and regulation; DNA fingerprinting.

Theories and evidences of evolution, including modern Darwinism.

Unit 4: Structure and Function – Plants

Morphology of a flowering plant; Tissues and tissue systems in plants;

Anatomy and function of root, stem(including modifications), leaf, inflorescence, flower (including position and arrangement of different whorls, placentation), fruit and seed; Types of fruit; Secondary growth;

Absorption and movement of water (including diffusion, osmosis and water relations of cell) and of nutrients; Translocation of food; Transpiration and gaseous exchange; Mechanism of stomatal movement.

Mineral nutrition: Macro- and micro-nutrients in plants including deficiency disorders; Biological nitrogen fixation mechanism.

Photosynthesis: Light reaction, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; Various pathways of carbon dioxide fixation; Photorespiration; Limiting factors .

Respiration: Anaerobic, Fermentation, Aerobic; Glycolysis, TCA cycle; Electron transport system; Energy relations.

Unit: 5 Structure and Function–Animals

Tissues:

Elementary knowledge of morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of earthworm, cockroach and frog.

Human Physiology – Digestive system – organs, digestion and absorption; Respiratory system – organs, breathing and exchange and transport of gases. Body fluids and circulation – Blood, lymph, double circulation, regulation of cardiac activity; Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases.

Excretion system: Urine formation, regulation of kidney function

Locomotion and movement: Skeletal system, joints, muscles, types of movement.

Control and co-ordination:

Central and peripheral nervous systems, structure and function of neuron, reflex action and sensory reception; Role of various types of endocrine glands; Mechanism of hormone action.

Unit : 6 Reproduction, Growth and Movement in Plants

Asexual methods of reproduction; Sexual Reproduction:

Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination (Types and agents); Fertilization; Development of embryo, endosperm, seed and fruit (including parthenocarpy and apomixis).

Growth and Movement:

Growth phases; Types of growth regulators and their role in seed dormancy, germination and movement; Apical dominance; Senescence; Abscission; Photo- periodism; Vernalisation; Various types of movements.

Unit 7: Reproduction and Development in Humans

Male and female reproductive systems; Menstrual cycle; Gamete production; Fertilisation; Implantation; Embryo development; Pregnancy and parturition; Birth control and contraception.

Unit 8: Ecology and Environment

Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche.

Ecological levels of organization (organism to biosphere); Characteristics of Species, Population, Biotic Community and Ecosystem; Succession and Climax.

Ecosystem:

Biotic and abiotic components; Ecological pyramids; Food chain and Food web; Energy flow; Major types of ecosystems including agroecosystem.

Ecological adaptations:

Structural and physiological features in plants and animals of aquatic and desert habitats.

Biodiversity:

Meaning, types and conservation strategies (Biosphere reserves, National parks and Sanctuaries)

Environmental Issues:

Air and Water Pollution (sources and major pollutants); Global warming and Climate change; Ozone depletion; Noise pollution; Radioactive pollution; Methods of pollution control (including an idea of bioremediation); Deforestation; Extinction of species (Hot Spots).

Unit 9 : Biology and Human Welfare

Animal husbandry:

Livestock, Poultry, Fisheries; Major animal diseases and their control. Pathogens of major communicable diseases of humans caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans and helminths, and their control.

   * Cancer; AIDS.

   * Adolescence and drug/alcohol abuse;

   * Basic concepts of immunology.

   * Plant Breeding and Tissue Culture in crop improvement.

   * Biofertilisers (green manure, symbiotic and free-living nitrogen-fixing microbes, mycorrhizae);

   * Biopesticides (micro-organisms as biocontrol agents for pests and pathogens); Bioherbicides;

   * Microorganisms as pathogens of plant diseases with special reference to rust and smut of wheat, bacterial leaf blight of rice, late blight of potato, bean mosaic, and root – knot of vegetables.

Bioenergy:

Hydrocarbon Rich plants as substitute of fossil fuels.

Unit 10: Biotechnology and its Applications

Microbes as ideal system for biotechnology;

Microbial technology in food processing, industrial production (alcohol, acids, enzymes, antibiotics), sewage treatment and energy generation.

Steps in recombinant DNA technology: Restriction enzymes, DNA insertion by vectors and other methods, regeneration of recombinants.

Applications of R-DNA technology. In human health –Production of Insulin, Vaccines and Growth hormones, Organ transplant, Gene therapy. In Industry – Production of expensive enzymes, strain improvement to scale up bioprocesses. In Agriculture – GM crops by transfer of genes for nitrogen fixation, herbicide-resistance and pest-resistance including Bt crops.

Get practice papers FREE

BOOK A FREE TRIAL
Copyright © 2010-2011 www.emedicalprep.com. All rights reserved.
Skip to toolbar